Annual 2019 Global Climate Report (2023)

Additional Resources

Temperature and Precipitation Maps

  • Annual

Temperature Anomalies Time Series

  • Annual

Supplemental Material

  • 2019 year-to-date temperatures versus previous years
  • Monthly temperature anomalies versus El Niño
  • Global Temperature Trends, Updated through 2019
  • Calculating the Probability of Rankings for 2019
  • NOAA: El año 2019 fue el segundo año más cálido desde los comienzos de los registros en 1880
(Video) State of the Global Climate Report 2019 (WMO) Press Conference

Global Temperatures

The year 2019 was the second warmest year in the 140-year record, with a global land and ocean surface temperature departure from average of +0.95°C (+1.71°F). This value is only 0.04°C (0.07°F) less than the record high value of +0.99°C (+1.78°F) set in 2016 and 0.02°C (0.04°F) higher than the now third highest value set in 2015 (+0.93°C / +1.67°F). The five warmest years in the 1880–2019 record have all occurred since 2015, while nine of the 10 warmest years have occurred since 2005. The year 1998 currently ranks as the 10 warmest year on record. The year 2019 marks the 43rd consecutive year (since 1977) with global land and ocean temperatures, at least nominally, above the 20th century average.

The year began in a weak-to-moderate El Niño, transitioning to ENSO-neutral conditions by July. During the year, each monthly temperature ranked among the five warmest for their respective months on record, with the months of June and July record warm.

The global annual temperature has increased at an average rate of 0.07°C (0.13°F) per decade since 1880 and over twice that rate (+0.18°C / +0.32°F) since 1981.

January–December Ranks and Records
January–December Anomaly Rank
(out of 140 years)
Records
°C °F Year(s) °C °F
Global
Land +1.42 ± 0.14 +2.56 ± 0.25 Warmest 2nd 2016 +1.54 +2.77
Coolest 139th 1884 -0.72 -1.30
Ties: 2015
Ocean +0.77 ± 0.16 +1.39 ± 0.29 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.79 +1.42
Coolest 139th 1904 -0.46 -0.83
Land and Ocean +0.95 ± 0.15 +1.71 ± 0.27 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.99 +1.78
Coolest 139th 1904 -0.45 -0.81
Northern Hemisphere
Land +1.46 ± 0.16 +2.63 ± 0.29 Warmest 4th 2016 +1.68 +3.02
Coolest 137th 1884 -0.82 -1.48
Ocean +0.95 ± 0.16 +1.71 ± 0.29 Warmest 1st 2019 +0.95 +1.71
Coolest 140th 1904 -0.52 -0.94
Land and Ocean +1.15 ± 0.15 +2.07 ± 0.27 Warmest 2nd 2016 +1.21 +2.18
Coolest 139th 1904, 1907 -0.48 -0.86
Southern Hemisphere
Land +1.32 ± 0.11 +2.38 ± 0.20 Warmest 1st 2019 +1.32 +2.38
Coolest 140th 1917 -0.72 -1.30
Ocean +0.64 ± 0.16 +1.15 ± 0.29 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.70 +1.26
Coolest 139th 1909, 1911 -0.43 -0.77
Land and Ocean +0.74 ± 0.15 +1.33 ± 0.27 Warmest 2nd 2016 +0.77 +1.39
Coolest 139th 1911 -0.44 -0.79

The 1901–2000 average combined land and ocean annual temperature is 13.9°C (57.0°F), the annually averaged land temperature for the same period is 8.5°C (47.3°F), and the long-term annually averaged sea surface temperature is 16.1°C (60.9°F).

Ten Warmest Years (1880–2019)

The following table lists the global combined land and ocean annually averaged temperature rank and anomaly for each of the 10 warmest years on record.

Rank
1 = Warmest
Period of Record: 1880–2019
Year Anomaly °C Anomaly °F
1 2016 0.99 1.78
2 2019 0.95 1.71
3 2015 0.93 1.67
4 2017 0.91 1.64
5 2018 0.83 1.49
6 2014 0.74 1.33
7 2010 0.72 1.30
8 (tied) 2005 0.67 1.21
8 (tied) 2013 0.67 1.21
10 1998 0.65 1.17

Regional Temperatures

The following information was compiled from previous NCEI monitoring reports and public reports by National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs; peers of the U.S. National Weather Service).

(Video) First Annual Global Climate Restoration Forum, UN, September 2019

The year 2019 was characterized by warmer-than-average conditions across most of the global land and ocean surfaces. Record high annual temperatures over land surfaces were measured across parts of central Europe, Asia, Australia, southern Africa, Madagascar, New Zealand, North America, and eastern South America. Record high sea surface temperatures were observed across parts of all oceans, specifically, parts of the North and South Atlantic Ocean, the western Indian Ocean, and areas of northern, central and southwestern Pacific Ocean. No land or ocean areas were record cold for the year.

January–December 2019 Blended Land and Sea Surface Temperature Percentiles

North America

North America was the only continent that did not have an annual temperature that ranked among its three highest on record. Overall, North America's temperature was 0.90°C (1.62°F) above the 1910–2000 average, marking the 14th warmest year in the 110-year continental record. The yearly temperature for North America has increased at an average rate of 0.13°C (0.23°F) per decade since 1910; however, the average rate of increase is more than twice as great (+0.29°C / +0.52°F per decade) since 1981.

(Video) WMO Provisional Statement on the State of the Global Climate in 2019 - English

  • During January 2019, several locations across Canada set new low maximum and minimum January temperature records at the end of the month as cold Arctic air affected the region. According to Environment and Climate Change Canada, maximum temperatures during this time did not rise above the -25.0°C (-13.0°F) mark. Of note, Lansdowne House (Ontario) set a new low minimum temperature on January 27 when temperatures plummeted to -47.5°C (-53.5°F), exceeding the previous record set in 1957 (-38.9°C / -38.0°F).
  • Please see the U.S. national annual report for information on the 2019 climate conditions across the U.S.
  • According to Mexico's CONAGUA, the months of June through November (no December 2019 data was available at the time of this write-up) had a temperature that ranked among the four highest for their respective months. Of note, August 2019 was the warmest August on record for the nation with a temperature departure from average of +3.3°C (+5.9°F). The national temperature for the months of March and May were among the ten warmest for their respective months on record.

South America

South America had its second warmest year on record with a temperature departure from average of +1.24°C (+2.23°F). This value is only 0.19°C (0.34°F) cooler than the record-warm year in 2015. South America's five warmest years on record have all occurred since 2014. The yearly temperature for South America has increased at an average rate of 0.13°C (0.23°F) per decade since 1910; however, the average rate of increase is nearly double that value (+0.24°C / +0.43°F per decade) since 1981.

  • Argentina's national temperature for the year was 0.3°C (0.5°F) above the 1981–2010 average and ranked as the 12th highest temperature since national records began in 1961. Argentina's five warmest years have all occurred since 2012
  • A heat wave impacted much of Chile during January 24–27, 2019, with several locations registering temperatures as high as 40.0°C (104.0°F). The city of Santiago set a new maximum temperature record when temperatures soared to 38.3°C (100.9°F) on January 27. Santiago's previous record was set in 2017 at 37.4°C (99.3°F).
  • According to the World Meteorological Organization, Brazil also had a heat wave that affected the southeastern part of the country during January 2019. Several locations recorded temperatures above 30.0°C (86.0°F). Of particular interest, Rio de Janeiro had registered a temperature of 37.4°C (99.3°F)—the second hottest temperature for the station since 1961.

Europe

Following Europe's record warm year in 2018, the year 2019 was also very warm, ranking as the second warmest on record and just 0.04°C (0.07°F) cooler than 2018. The years 2014 through 2019 all rank among Europe's six warmest years on record. Europe's annual temperature has increased at an average rate of 0.14°C (0.25°F) per decade since 1910; however, it has more than tripled to 0.46°C (0.83°F) since 1981.

  • Warmer-than-average conditions were present across much of western and central Europe during late February, with several locations setting new February maximum temperature records. For the first time, the United Kingdom recorded a maximum temperature over 20.0°C (68.0°F) during a winter month. The maximum temperature of 21.2°C (70.2°F) was set on February 26, 2019 at Kew Gardens, London. A new Swedish maximum temperature for February was set on the 26th when temperatures rose to 16.7°C (62.1°F) in Karlshamn. This value surpassed the previous record of 16.5°C (61.7°F) set in Ölvingstorp and Västervik, Smaland on February 18, 1961. The Netherlands observed its highest February maximum temperature since national records began in 1901. On February 26, 2019, maximum temperatures reached 18.9°C (66.0°F) in De Bilt. Austria set a new national maximum temperature record on February 28, 2019 when temperatures soared to 24.2°C (75.6°F) in Güssing and Deutschlandsberg. This value exceeded the previous record set on February 29, 1960 by 0.6°C (1.1°F).
  • According to Météo France, nine of 12 months in 2019 were warmer than average in France, with only May experiencing cooler-than-average temperatures. Overall, this was France's third warmest year since national records began in 1900 at 1.1°C (2.0°F) above the 1981–2010 average of 12.6°C (54.7°F). Only 2018 (+1.4°C / +2.5°F) and 2014 (+1.2°C / +2.2°F) were warmer. Nine of France's 10 warmest years on record have all occurred since 2000; with the five warmest years taking place since 2011. During 2019, France was affected by two severe heat waves during June and July, which resulted in a new national high maximum temperature being set in southern France on June 28, 2019 at 46.0°C (114.8°F). This value was 1.9°C (3.4°F) higher than the previous record and marked the first time maximum temperatures surpassed 45.0°C (113.0°F) in the country.
  • Austria had its third warmest year since national records began in 1767, with a national temperature departure from average of +1.6°C (+2.9°F). Only the years of 2018 and 2014 were warmer. According to Austria's ZAMG, the 14 warmest years on record have all occurred since 1994.
  • According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom set new national July temperature records. Germany's temperature of 42.6°C (108.7°F) on July 25 became the new national temperature record for July, breaking the previous record of 40.3°C (104.5°F) set on July 5, 2015 by 2.3°C (4.1°F). The Netherlands' new national all-time maximum temperature of 40.7°C (105.3°F) set on July 25 in Gilze-Rijen surpassed a 75-year-old record of 38.8°C (101.8°F) set on August 23, 1944 by 0.5°C (0.9°F). This marked the first time that temperatures exceeded 40.0°C (104.0°F) in The Netherlands. Norway recorded a maximum temperature of 35.6°C (96.1°F) at Laksfors, tying the national maximum temperature record set on June 20, 1970 at Nesbyen (Buskerud). Saltdal recorded a maximum temperature of 34.6°C (94.3°F)—the highest temperature ever recorded north of the Arctic Circle in Norway, according to Météo France. Similarly, Sweden had a maximum temperature of 34.8°C (94.6°F) in the Markusvinsa on July 26—the nation's highest temperature on record north of the Arctic Circle.

Africa

With a yearly continental average temperature of 1.33°C (2.39°F) above average, Africa had its third warmest year in the 110-year record, trailing behind 2016 (warmest) and 2010 (second warmest). Africa's five warmest years have all occurred since 2015. Africa's annual temperature has increased at an average rate of 0.12°C (0.22°F) per decade since 1910; however, it has more than doubled to 0.31°C (0.56°F) since 1981.

Asia

Asia had its third warmest year on record, with a temperature of 1.68°C (3.02°F) above the 1910–2000 average. Only the years 2015 and 2017 were warmer. Asia's five warmest years have all taken place since 2007. Asia's trend during the 1910–2019 period was +0.16°C (+0.29°F) per decade; however, the 1981–2019 trend is twice the longer-term trend (+0.35°C / +0.63°F).

  • Hong Kong had its warmest year, with the highest maximum (27.1°C / 80.8°F), minimum (22.6°C / 72.7°F), and mean (24.5°C / 76.1°F) temperatures since records began in 1884.
  • According to Japan's Meteorological Agency, Japan set a new May national maximum temperature record when temperatures soared to 39.5°C (103.1°F) on May 26, 2019 in Saroma (located on the island of Hokkaido). This value surpassed the previous May record of 37.2°C (99.0°F), set in May 1993, by 2.3°C (4.14°F). Thirty-six stations across Japan set new all-time maximum temperature records. Of note, the station in Obihiro set a new all-time high temperature of 38.8°C (101.8°F), exceeding the previous record of July 12, 1924 by 1.0°C (1.8°F).
  • Israel experienced a heat wave that brought record-breaking temperatures during May 22–24. Several locations saw temperatures soar to between 43.0°–45.0°C (109°–113°F). According to Israel's Meteorological Services, the most intense heat was observed on the 24th when maximum temperatures rose to 45°–48°C (113.0°–118.0°F) in the Jordan Valley, the Dead Sea area, and northern Arava. According to the World Meteorological Organization, Sedom, Israel, had a maximum temperature of 49.9°C (121.8°F) on July 17, Israel's highest temperature since at least 1942.

Oceania

Oceania had its warmest year on record at 1.40°C (2.52°F) above average. This value is 0.04°C (0.07°F) warmer than the now second warmest year on record set in 2013. Oceania's five warmest year have all occurred since 2005. The 1910–2019 trend for Oceania was +0.12°C (+0.22°F) per decade; however, the trend is twice that during the 1981–2018 period (+0.22°C / +0.40°F per decade).

  • Australia had its warmest year in the nation's 110-year record with a temperature departure from average of 1.52°C (2.74°F) above the 1961–1990 average. This exceeded the previous record of 1.33°C (2.39°F) set in 2013 by 0.19°C (0.34°F). The nation's maximum temperature was also the highest on record at 2.09°C (3.76°F) above average, while the minimum temperature (+0.95°C / +1.71°F) was the sixth highest on record. An intense heat wave affected Australia throughout much of January, with many locations setting new high maximum and minimum January temperature records. According to Australia's Bureau of Meteorology, the nation's mean temperature reached 40.0°C (104.0°F) for five consecutive days (12–16 January 2019), exceeding the previous record of two consecutive days set in 1972 and again in 2013.
  • New Zealand had its fourth warmest year on record with a national average temperature of 13.37°C (56.07°F). This was 0.76°C (1.37°F) above the 1981–2010 average. Only the years of 2016 (warmest) and 2018 and 1998 (tied second warmest) were warmer.

Precipitation

As indicated by the Global Percent of Normal Precipitation and Precipitation Percentiles maps below and as is typical, many stations were wet for the year, while many stations were dry. Also, as discussed below, extreme precipitation and drought events occurred across the world.

January-December 2019 Land-Only Precipitation Anomalies

January-December 2019 Land-Only Precipitation Percent of Normal

(Video) World Meteorological Global Climate Change Report 2019

North America

  • See the U.S. National Annual Climate and U.S. Annual Drought reports for additional information on drought and notable precipitation extremes across the U.S. during 2019.
  • Hurricane Dorian affected the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in late August with 75 mph (121 km h-1) winds and heavy rain, then intensified to a Category 5 hurricane. Dorian made landfall in the Bahamas on September 1, making it the strongest hurricane on record to affect the Bahamas on record. Dorian remained stationary over the Bahamas for about 24 hours, causing great devastation across the islands. Estimated economic losses exceed $3 billion (U.S. dollars).

South America

  • Parts of northern Argentina and southern Brazil had above-average precipitation totals during January 2019. Several locations set new precipitation records for January. Of note, the city of Resistencia had a total of 556.8 mm (21.9 inches). The city of Resistencia also set a new January 24-hour rainfall record when a total of 224 mm (8.8 inches) fell on January 8. The previous record of 206 mm (8.1 inches) was set in 1994.
  • Heavy rain fell across parts of Argentina's Santiago del Estero Province, located in northern Argentina, in early May. The torrential rain prompted floods that damaged nearly 600,000 hectares of crops and about 700 people were forced to evacuate their homes.

Europe

  • Spain had its wettest April since 2008 and the fourth wettest since national records began in 1965 at 96 mm (3.8 inches) or 48% above the 1981–2010 average of 65 mm (2.6 inches). Several locations in southeastern Spain set new daily and monthly precipitation records. Of note, the Alicante-Elche Airport received a total of 98.9 mm (3.9 inches) on April 15, 2019, surpassing the previous record of 38 mm (1.5 inches) set in April 15, 2004. The Alicante-Elche Airport also set a new monthly precipitation record with a total of 186 mm (7.3 inches).
  • Drier-than-average conditions were present across much of Finland, with some locations having their driest April on record. Pello had a total of 3.6 mm (0.14 inch) for th month—the lowest precipitation total in April since records began for this location 50 years ago. The dry and warm conditions contributed to the development of wildfires in southern Finland at the end of the month.
  • Summer 2019 was particularly dry across parts of western and central Europe. According to the WMO, Paris, France had a total of 34 consecutive days (August 19–September 21) without rain—tying its second longest dry spell on record.

Africa

  • Tropical cyclone Idai, which formed in the Mozambique Channel on March 4, reached its maximum sustained winds of 127 mph (205 km h-1) on March 14, equivalent to a Category 3 tropical cyclone on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. However, it decreased in intensity to an equivalent Category 2 tropical cyclone before making landfall in central Mozambique on March 15. During Idai's lifespan, the storm brought strong winds and torrential rains to Madagascar, Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe. Over 3 million people in eastern Africa were affected and over 1070 people died due to the severe weather conditions. Idai was one of the strongest known cyclones to make landfall on the east coast of Africa (WMO) and, according to reports, was the second deadliest tropical cyclone in the South-west Indian Ocean basin, behind an unnamed tropical cyclone in 1892 (1200 fatalities). Total damages caused by the storm are estimated to be at least $1 billion (U.S. dollars)—one of the costliest tropical cyclones in the South-west Indian Ocean basin.
  • Tropical Cyclone Kenneth made landfall in northern Mozambique on April 25 as an equivalent Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The storm was the second tropical cyclone to impact Mozambique within weeks of each other (Tropical Cyclone Idai). According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), this was the first time that two major (equivalent to Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson scale) tropical cyclones made landfall in Mozambique in the same season. Kenneth was also the first tropical cyclone to impact northern Mozambique, an area where no storms have previously been observed since satellite records began. According to the WMO, the northern city of Pemba had a total of 168.7 mm (6.6 inches) of rain in a 24-hour period from April 27–28, with an additional 254.7 mm (10.0 inches) from April 28–29. The heavy rainfall across northern Mozambique led to severe floods and landslides. The South-west Indian Ocean 2018/19 tied with the record season of 1993/94.

Asia

  • According to the WMO, rainfall during India's summer monsoon season (June–September) for 2019 was 10% above the 1961–2010 average, marking the wettest summer monsoon season since 1994 and the first time it was above-average since 2013.
  • According to Germany's Deutscher Wetterdienst, copious rain impacted Israel and Jordan on February 27–28 . The cities of Jerusalem and Amman recorded more than one month's worth of rain in just 24 hours. The heavy rain triggered floods, caused traffic disruptions, and prompted evacuations.
  • Typhoon Wutip was the Northern Hemisphere's first February Category 5 typhoon on record. Wutip produced significant rainfall over parts of Micronesia.
  • Western Iran had unprecedented rainfall during March 17–31, setting new daily precipitation records at eight stations. Of note, the Koohrang station in the Chahar Mahal-Bakhtiari province had a total daily rainfall of 187.8 mm (7.4 inches). According to the Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization, 28% of the nation's annual rainfall total was received during the last two weeks of March. Several provinces in western Iran received 30–60% of their annual total during this time. The heavy rain led to floods in the region and over 70 fatalities were directly or indirectly related to the severe weather conditions.
  • The Bahrain International Airport in the Kingdom of Bahrain had a total of six rainy days during April 2019, resulting in a monthly total precipitation of 31.3 mm (1.23 inches). This was more than three times the April normal of 10.0 mm (0.39 inch) and was the fifth highest April precipitation total since records began in 1902. The wettest April took place in 1961 with a total of 69.9 mm (2.75 inches).
  • Parts of southeast Asia were affected by drought conditions during 2019. It was reported that Singapore had its driest July–September on record.
  • Typhoon Hagibis made landfall in Japan's Izu peninsula on October 12, impacting the nation with strong winds and record-breaking rainfall. The storm also brought damaging storm surge and caused coastal and inland flooding. According to the WMO, Hakone-machi (located in southwestern Kanagawa) had a daily total of 922.5 mm (36.19 inches) of rain due to Hagibis, which was the highest daily total in Japan on record. Hagibis was also one of the most rapidly intensifying tropical cyclones on record in the region and one of the highest-impact storms to affect Japan in many years.

Oceania

  • With an average of only 277.6 mm (10.9 inches) of precipitation during 2019, Australia had its driest year on record in the 120-year precipitation record. This was 36.9 mm (1.4 inches) of precipitation less than the now second driest year of 1902. A very strong positive Indian Ocean Dipole was a contributing factor to the much drier conditions during 2019. Record warm and dry conditions throughout much of the year also contributed to the development of significant wildfires. Smoke and dust from the wildfires reduced air quality across eastern Australia. According to Australia's Bureau of Meteorology, the frequency of extreme heat events have increased about five fold since the 1950s in Australia.
  • In New Zealand, several locations had dry conditions in February 2019, persisting from late January. The city of Nelson on the South Island had a 40-day dry spell (15 days or more with less than 1 mm [0.04 inch] of rain on any one day)—its fourth longest dry spell since records began in 1862. Tauranga and Hamilton had a 36-day dry spell, which was their third longest since records began in 1910 and 1935, respectively.
  • New Zealand set a new national 48-hour precipitation record when a total of 1086 mm (42.75 inches) of rain fell at Cropp River (located in New Zealand's South Island) in late March.

Ocean Heat Content

Ocean Heat Content (OHC) is essential for understanding and modeling global climate since > 90% of excess heat in the Earth's system is absorbed by the ocean. Further, expansion due to increased ocean heat contributes to sea level rise. Change in OHC is calculated from the difference of observed temperature profiles from the long-term mean.

2019 Ocean Heat Content (1022 joules)
Basin 0-700 meters | Rank (1955-2019)
Entire Basin Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere
Atlantic7.5031st4.2241st3.2791st
Indian3.5344th0.7083rd2.8265th
Pacific6.6841st3.2522nd3.4323rd
World17.7261st8.1881st9.5371st
Source: Basin time series of heat content

(Video) The New UN Climate Report: We're Screwed

Ocean heat content (OHC), for the upper 2000 meters, for 2019 was the highest in the 70-year record at 228 ZJ (Zeta Joules; 1 ZJ = 1021 Joules) above the 1981–2010 average. The 2019 OHC bested the previous record set in 2018 by 25 ZJ. The five highest OHC have all occurred in the last five years (2015–19), while the last ten years (2010–19) have the 10 highest OHC on record. During 2019, the heating was distributed throughout the world's oceans, with the vast majority of regions showing an increase in thermal energy. The Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (especially near Antarctic Circumpolar Current, ACC, (40°S–60°S) continued to show a larger warming compared to most of the other basins.

The ocean heating is irrefutable and a key measure of the Earth's energy imbalance: the excess greenhouse gases in the air trap more heat inside the climate system and drives global warming. More than 90% of the heat accumulates in the ocean because of its large heat capacity, and the other heating is manifested in warming the atmosphere, warming and drying land, and melting land and sea ice. There are no reasonable alternatives aside from the human emissions of heat-trapping gases (IPCC 2001, 2007, 2013, 2019; USGCRP 2017).

For additional information on the 2019 OHC, please see the paper titled Record-Setting Ocean Warmth Continued in 2019.

References

FAQs

Are we on track for 1.5 C? ›

Are we on track for 1.5°C? The world is not on track for 1.5°C and most countries still lack sufficient climate targets. Recent updates to national climate targets presented at the US Climate Leaders' Summit are a step forward to limiting warming to 1.5°C.

Why is 1.5 degrees a big deal? ›

The scientific community has concluded that holding warming below 1.5°C/2.7°F offers the best chance to prevent irrevocable changes to the climate system. There's nothing magical about the 1.5°C/2.7°F limit.

What is the number 1 solution to solving enhanced global warming? ›

The Solution

The primary way to solve global warming is to eliminate the role of fossil fuels in modern society wherever possible.

What is the 1.5 degree target? ›

The 1.5 °C target is the goal of the Paris Agreement, which calls for countries to take concerted climate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit global warming.

Will 2022 be the hottest year on record? ›

According to NCEI's Global Annual Temperature Outlook, there is a greater than 99% chance that 2022 will rank among the 10-warmest years on record but less than 11% chance that it will rank among the top five.

What's the difference between 1.5 C and 2 C of global warming? ›

Warming of 1.5°C would destroy at least 70% of coral reefs, but at 2°C more than 99% would be lost. That would destroy fish habitats and communities that rely on reefs for their food and livelihoods.

How hot will it be in 2030? ›

AUnderstanding Global Warming of 1.5°C*

warming above pre-industrial levels, with a likely range of 0.8°C to 1.2°C. Global warming is likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052 if it continues to increase at the current rate.

What happens if the Earth warms 3 degrees? ›

A rise of 3°C in global temperatures above pre-industrial levels by 2100 would be disastrous. Its effects would be felt differently around the world, but nowhere would be immune. Prolonged heatwaves, droughts and extreme weather events could all become increasingly common and severe.

What will happen if the Earth warms 2 degrees? ›

This 2 degree warmer world still represents what scientists characterize as a profoundly disrupted climate with fiercer storms, higher seas, animal and plant extinctions, disappearing coral, melting ice and more people dying from heat, smog and infectious disease.

What is the most effective solution to climate change? ›

Changing our main energy sources to clean and renewable energy is the best way to stop using fossil fuels. These include technologies like solar, wind, wave, tidal and geothermal power. Switch to sustainable transport. Petrol and diesel vehicles, planes and ships use fossil fuels.

What are 5 solutions to global warming? ›

For example, improvements to energy efficiency and vehicle fuel economy, increases in wind and solar power, biofuels from organic waste, setting a price on carbon, and protecting forests are all potent ways to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide and other gases trapping heat on the planet.

Can global warming be stopped? ›

Yes. While we cannot stop global warming overnight, we can slow the rate and limit the amount of global warming by reducing human emissions of heat-trapping gases and soot (“black carbon”).

How much hotter Has the Earth had in the last 100 years? ›

Global surface temperature has been measured since 1880 at a network of ground-based and ocean-based sites. Over the last century, the average surface temperature of the Earth has increased by about 1.0o F. The eleven warmest years this century have all occurred since 1980, with 1995 the warmest on record.

Is global warming increasing or decreasing in 2022? ›

Preliminary data shows that global CO2 emissions in 2022 (January to May) are 1.2% above the levels recorded during the same period in 2019, driven by increases in the United States, India and most European countries.

How long until climate change is irreversible? ›

of aggressive climate change policies is that humanity is always about 10 years away from either catastrophic climate change, or some greenhouse gas emission “tipping point” at which such change will become inevitable.

Why was 1936 so hot? ›

The climate of that region took on desert qualities, accentuating its capacity to produce heat. A strong ridge of high pressure set up over the west coast and funneled the heat northward across the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes.

Is summer 2022 hotter than normal? ›

Long range outlooks for this summer favor above normal temperatures and below normal precipitation. This year is bearing a striking resemblance to 2011, which was the hottest summer on record.

Why is 2022 so hot summer? ›

Most climate divisions in the US experienced days when high temperatures were being made more likely because of climate change. Along the coast of Texas, for example, more than 60 days this summer had temperatures found to be influenced by climate change.

What happens if we reach 1.5 Celsius? ›

Limiting temperature increases to 1.5 degrees Celsius could halve the amount of sea level rise that happens by the end of the century, compared with what's expected. More than 4 million people in the U.S. are at risk along coastlines, where higher sea levels would cause bigger storm surges and higher high tides.

What is the significance of 1.5C and what will be three major consequences of that temperature increase? ›

Holding this rise to 1.5 °C avoids the worst effects of a rise by even 2 °C. However, a warming of even 1.5 degrees will still result in large-scale drought, famine, heat stress, species die-off, loss of entire ecosystems, and loss of habitable land, throwing more than 100 million into poverty.

How much difference do you think a 0.5 C increase in global temperature can make? ›

Summary: In a simulation study, researchers showed that limiting global warming to 1.5°C rather than 2°C will mitigate aridification in some regions of the world including the Mediterranean, western Europe, and southern Africa.

Will there be snow in 2050? ›

If fossil fuel emissions do not abate, researchers predict snowpack in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges could decline up to 45 percent come 2050, with low snow or even no snow seasons regularly occurring from then on. Compared to the past, that's a dramatic change.

What will happen to Earth in 2040? ›

The report warns that, by 2040, global temperatures are expected to rise 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, meaning that most people alive today will see the dramatic effects of climate change within their lifetime.

What temperature is too hot for humans to survive? ›

People often point to a study published in 2010 that estimated that a wet-bulb temperature of 35 C – equal to 95 F at 100 percent humidity, or 115 F at 50 percent humidity – would be the upper limit of safety, beyond which the human body can no longer cool itself by evaporating sweat from the surface of the body to ...

What Will temperature be like in 2050? ›

Since 1880, average global temperatures have increased by about 1 degrees Celsius (1.7° degrees Fahrenheit). Global temperature is projected to warm by about 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7° degrees Fahrenheit) by 2050 and 2-4 degrees Celsius (3.6-7.2 degrees Fahrenheit) by 2100.

How hot will the world be in 2100? ›

Without strengthening climate policies, greenhouse gas emissions are projected to lead to a median global warming of about 3.2 degrees Celsius by 2100, per the report. Climate scientists have previously warned that severe effects could occur if the Earth warms more than 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

What will the Earth be like in 2100? ›

🌡🗓 Heatwaves will be 39 times more common than they were in the 19th Century. On average, the global temperature will be over 40°C around 7 days a year. 🌪 Extreme weather events such as cyclones, hurricanes and droughts would no longer be seen as "extreme", because of how often they would happen.

Are we still in an ice age? ›

Striking during the time period known as the Pleistocene Epoch, this ice age started about 2.6 million years ago and lasted until roughly 11,000 years ago. Like all the others, the most recent ice age brought a series of glacial advances and retreats. In fact, we are technically still in an ice age.

What will happen to Earth in 2050? ›

World population is expected to increase from 7 billion today to over 9 billion in 2050. A growing population is likely to increase pressures on the natural resources that supply energy and food. World GDP is projected to almost quadruple by 2050, despite the recent recession.

What can you personally do to help global climate change? ›

  1. Make your voice heard by those in power. ...
  2. Eat less meat and dairy. ...
  3. Cut back on flying. ...
  4. Leave the car at home. ...
  5. Reduce your energy use, and bills. ...
  6. Respect and protect green spaces. ...
  7. Invest your money responsibly. ...
  8. Cut consumption – and waste.

What can the government do to reduce climate change? ›

How Do Governments Combat Climate Change?
  • Carbon taxes. Greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, pollute the atmosphere and change the climate. ...
  • Cap and trade. ...
  • Clean energy standards. ...
  • International agreements. ...
  • Adaptation policies. ...
  • Minimizing financial risks of climate change. ...
  • Tech investment.

How can we reduce the impact of climate change? ›

  1. Put a price on carbon.
  2. End fossil fuel subsidies.
  3. Build low-carbon, resilient cities.
  4. Increase energy efficiency and use of renewable energy.
  5. Implement climate-smart agriculture and nurture forest landscapes.
18 Mar 2015

What is the major cause of global climate change? ›

Fossil fuels – coal, oil and gas – are by far the largest contributor to global climate change, accounting for over 75 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions and nearly 90 per cent of all carbon dioxide emissions. As greenhouse gas emissions blanket the Earth, they trap the sun's heat.

When did global warming start? ›

The instrumental temperature record shows the signal of rising temperatures emerged in the tropical ocean in about the 1950s. Today's study uses the extra information captured in the proxy record to trace the start of the warming back a full 120 years, to the 1830s.

Why do we need to stop climate change? ›

The main threats of climate change, stemming from the rising temperature of Earth's atmosphere include rising sea levels, ecosystem collapse and more frequent and severe weather. Rising temperatures from human-caused greenhouse gas emissions affects planet-wide systems in various ways.

How long is earth left? ›

By that point, all life on Earth will be extinct. Finally, the most probable fate of the planet is absorption by the Sun in about 7.5 billion years, after the star has entered the red giant phase and expanded beyond the planet's current orbit.

How long do humans have left? ›

Humanity has a 95% probability of being extinct in 7,800,000 years, according to J.

Is it already too late to stop climate change? ›

No matter what we do now, it's too late to avoid climate change. And the poorest, the most vulnerable, those with the least security, are now certain to suffer. Our duty right now is surely to do all we can to help those in the most immediate danger.

Is the sun getting hotter every year? ›

The Sun is becoming increasingly hotter (or more luminous) with time. However, the rate of change is so slight we won't notice anything even over many millennia, let alone a single human lifetime.

How warm was the Earth 3 million years ago? ›

About 3 million years ago, the Earth was 2 to 3 degrees Celsius warmer than pre-industrial levels — just a couple of degrees warmer than our planet is today.

Is it true that no place on Earth is colder today than it was 100 years ago? ›

Most places on Earth are warmer than they were 100 years ago. Although most locations on the planet have recorded increased temperatures since 1880, changes in global ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns have created small-scale temperature decreases in a few local regions.

Has the Earth been hotter than it is now? ›

Even after those first scorching millennia, however, the planet has often been much warmer than it is now. One of the warmest times was during the geologic period known as the Neoproterozoic, between 600 and 800 million years ago.

Will 2022 be the hottest year on record? ›

According to NCEI's Global Annual Temperature Outlook, there is a greater than 99% chance that 2022 will rank among the 10-warmest years on record but less than 11% chance that it will rank among the top five.

Why Is the Earth getting hotter? ›

Extra greenhouse gases in our atmosphere are the main reason that Earth is getting warmer. Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane, trap the Sun's heat in Earth's atmosphere. It's normal for there to be some greenhouse gases in our atmosphere.

Is global warming getting worse? ›

Latest IPCC climate report warns that rising greenhouse-gas emissions could soon outstrip the ability of many communities to adapt. The negative impacts of climate change are mounting much faster than scientists predicted less than a decade ago, according to the latest report from a United Nations climate panel.

How serious is climate change now? ›

Climate change is causing greater impacts than expected at lower temperatures than anticipated, disrupting natural systems and affecting the lives of billions of people around the world, according to the latest report from the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

What will climate change be like in 2030? ›

AUnderstanding Global Warming of 1.5°C*

warming above pre-industrial levels, with a likely range of 0.8°C to 1.2°C. Global warming is likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052 if it continues to increase at the current rate.

› article › global-wa... ›

Climate change encompasses not only rising average temperatures but also extreme weather events, shifting wildlife populations and habitats, rising seas, and a ...
Environment News: If human fails to put a halt to carbon emissions— the biggest cause of climate change— it is going to have a catastrophic impact on the planet...

Global Warming

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov › GlobalWarming › page2
https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov › GlobalWarming › page2
Global warming is happening now, and scientists are confident that greenhouse gases are responsible. To understand what this means for humanity, it is necessary...

What happens at 1.5 degrees warming? ›

Holding this rise to 1.5 °C avoids the worst effects of a rise by even 2 °C. However, a warming of even 1.5 degrees will still result in large-scale drought, famine, heat stress, species die-off, loss of entire ecosystems, and loss of habitable land, throwing more than 100 million into poverty.

Why climate change is such a big deal? ›

Climate change won't just impact forest, or coral reefs, or even people in far-off countries – it will affect all of us. From more extreme weather to increasing food prices, to recreation and decreased opportunities to appreciate the natural world, people everywhere will feel its effects.

Why is 1 degree a big deal? ›

Why is 1.5 degrees such a big deal? | Kristen Bell + Giant Ant - YouTube

What would happen if the Earth's temperature rise by 1 degree? ›

EVAPORATION. A warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapor. If the climate warms by another one degree Celsius, the atmosphere would be able to hold about 7% more water vapor. Most of that extra water vapor is going to come from the earth through increased evaporation and transpiration.

Is it too late to stop global warming? ›

We can still do it, we haven't crossed the threshold. We have to agree on very big changes, and we have to do them right now. By 2050, in 30 years, we would have to reduce our CO2 emissions to zero — globally, not just in a developed country, globally.

How much will the Earth warm by 2050? ›

Since 1880, average global temperatures have increased by about 1 degrees Celsius (1.7° degrees Fahrenheit). Global temperature is projected to warm by about 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7° degrees Fahrenheit) by 2050 and 2-4 degrees Celsius (3.6-7.2 degrees Fahrenheit) by 2100.

How much hotter Has the Earth had in the last 100 years? ›

Global surface temperature has been measured since 1880 at a network of ground-based and ocean-based sites. Over the last century, the average surface temperature of the Earth has increased by about 1.0o F. The eleven warmest years this century have all occurred since 1980, with 1995 the warmest on record.

How long will it take to stop climate change? ›

The best science we have tells us that to avoid the worst impacts of global warming, we must globally achieve net-zero carbon emissions no later than 2050. To do this, world must immediately identify pathways to reduce carbon emissions from all sectors: transportation, electricity, and industry.

How do we fix climate change? ›

What are the solutions to climate change?
  1. Keep fossil fuels in the ground. ...
  2. Invest in renewable energy. ...
  3. Switch to sustainable transport. ...
  4. Help us keep our homes cosy. ...
  5. Improve farming and encourage vegan diets. ...
  6. Restore nature to absorb more carbon. ...
  7. Protect forests like the Amazon. ...
  8. Protect the oceans.

How many degrees is the earth warming per year? ›

According to NOAA's 2021 Annual Climate Report the combined land and ocean temperature has increased at an average rate of 0.14 degrees Fahrenheit ( 0.08 degrees Celsius) per decade since 1880; however, the average rate of increase since 1981 (0.18°C / 0.32°F) has been more than twice that rate.

How many degrees has the Earth warmed? ›

The Earth is generally regarded as having warmed about about 1° C (1.8° F) since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, around 1750.

How much will the temperature rise by 2100? ›

Results from a wide range of climate model simulations suggest that our planet's average temperature could be between 2 and 9.7°F (1.1 to 5.4°C) warmer in 2100 than it is today. The main reason for this temperature increase is carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping “greenhouse” gases that human activities produce.

What is the highest air temperature a human can survive? ›

It is commonly held that the maximum temperature at which humans can survive is 108.14-degree Fahrenheit or 42.3-degree Celsius. A higher temperature may denature proteins and cause irreparable damage to brain.

Is the sun getting hotter every year? ›

The Sun is becoming increasingly hotter (or more luminous) with time. However, the rate of change is so slight we won't notice anything even over many millennia, let alone a single human lifetime.

What will happen to Earth in 2050? ›

World population is expected to increase from 7 billion today to over 9 billion in 2050. A growing population is likely to increase pressures on the natural resources that supply energy and food. World GDP is projected to almost quadruple by 2050, despite the recent recession.

› news › why-a-half-degree-temp... ›

A small difference in global temperature rise can make a big difference to sea level, coral reefs, crops and more.
Scientists analyzed what the impact on the planet would be if global warming reached the ceiling of 1.5°C or 2°C and the difference. Wind energy on Global Wind&...
Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns, mainly caused by human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels.

Videos

1. Met Office annual State of the UK Climate Report for 2019
(Met Office - Science and Services)
2. Preparing for Climate Disruption | Annual Meeting 2019
(World Economic Forum)
3. SoGE Annual Lecture 2019: Can we limit global warming to 1.5°C, and how?
(School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford)
4. Global Warming: Fact or Fiction? Featuring Physicists Willie Soon and Elliott D. Bloom
(Independent Institute)
5. Press conference: WMO provisional statement on the State of the Global Climate in 2019- 03/12/19
(World Meteorological Organization - WMO)
6. 2021 Annual GWPF Lecture | Steven E Koonin | Unsettled
(The Global Warming Policy Foundation)
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